When Pursuing Pleasure Turns Into Avoiding Pain

Drug addiction is not just about chasing pleasure (feeling good) but also involves relieving emotional pain (relief reward or negative reinforcement). The negative emotional state is termed as the “dark side” of addiction (Koob, 2015). The dark side includes withdrawal symptoms, such as irritability, depression or even physical pain when access to the drug is denied. The dark side of drug addiction contributes to vulnerability to craving triggered by drug cues and stress. ….[READ]